El vino en la Historia Argentina

Cuenta la historia, que mucho antes de 1810, ya había vino en las tierras argentinas, antes de que existiese la Argentina como tal.  En estas latitudes, el cultivo de la vid estaba unido a las prácticas agrícolas del colono español, quien introdujo las primeras plantas a través del Perú, luego Chile y al poco tiempo a nuestro territorio.  Las primeras estacas desembarcaron de la mano de la religión que traían los españoles: los sacerdotes, los cuales plantaron viñedos cerca de sus conventos e iglesias para poder contar con el vino que requerían para la celebración de la misa.

Muchos investigadores aseguran que quien plantó los primeros viñedos en Santiago del Estero fue el cura Juan Cedrón con cepas de uva Moscatel y uva País, procedentes de España. Años más tarde, los franciscanos importaron uvas Malvasías para elaborar blancos en la provincia de Salta;y las ordenes religiosas católicas introdujeron cepas por el Río de la Plata y llegaron hasta la zona que hoy se conoce como el litoral Argentino. También se asegura que las primeras grandes extensiones de parrales se establecieron en Córdoba, gracias a los asentamientos de jesuitas en las estancias de Alta Gracia y Jesús Maria.

En lo que hace a la provincia de Mendoza, según la descripción que realiza fray Reginaldo Lizárraga en 1590, afirmaba: “la ciudad es fresquisima, donde se dan todos los frutos nuestros, arboles y viñas y donde sacan muy buen vino que llevan a Tucuman o de alla lo vienen a comprar”. Claro que el vino de aquel entonces, se elaboraba con uvas que hubiese, que en muchos casos podía ser, del tipo chinche.

Pero, el gran paso hacia la industria vitivinícola, y hacia la producción de vinos, se va a realizar hacia mediados del siglo XIX. Las razones de ello fueron varias: a partir de la Revolución de Mayo, la producción viñatera fue impulsada, dado que en ese momento, se deja de importar vinos españoles y se comienza a consumir los producidos en nuestro país; la gran oleada de inmigrantes, principalmente españoles e italianos, generaron las condiciones para que surgiera un importante mercado consumidor de vinos. Pero ademas, estos inmigrantes, traían consigo la cultura y el conocimiento de elaborar y beber vino, práctica que se iba multiplicando con el correr del tiempo; a mediados del siglo XIX, el presidente Domingo Sarmiento mando a contratar al ingeniero agrónomo francés Micheal Aime Pouget, quien armo y llevo adelante la Quinta Normal, destinada a la enseñanza de la agricultura y donde allí comienza a plantarse las grandes cepas que formarían parte de la historia de nuestros vinos; el trazado ferroviario, el cual comienza a funcionar en 1885, determinará un interesante medio para el traslado de vinos y uvas; y por último, las primeras bodegas. En Salta, Etchart ya producía desde 1850 y Colomé desde 1831.En San Juan, Graffigna nace en 1870. En Mendoza, Trapiche ya había plantado 250 hectáreas de viñedos y producía en su bodega desde 1897. Y así, surgieron un sinfín de bodegas reconocidas hasta hoy en día.  Ellas fueron las que dieron a conocer grandes etiquetas como así también comenzaron a hacer historia en el proceso de profesionalización de la industria vitivinícola.






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